How Knit Fleece for Sweatshirts Is Made

Knitted fleece is one of the most popular fabrics in the world. It is used in sweatshirts, pullovers and activewear because it is cheap, soft and has a smooth finish that is perfect for screen printing or embroidery. Almost everyone has made at least one item in their closet from knitted fleece, but few of us have long thought about how it is actually made.

Although knitted fleece may seem simple, it is really not at all if you look at the production process and the many variables that ensure that it is of high quality. Nowadays, many manufacturers have not only changed their knitting processes to achieve better, more high-quality products, but they have also added "extras" to the garment, such as Lycra in the ribboard and decorative stitching.

When the cotton comes to the factory

The process starts with bales of cotton, which are laid down so that the cotton can be mixed. The cotton is opened and then filtered; pull out foreign materials and make the cotton form more uniform strands. This is the step that brings staple fibers into a shape that can be reduced in bulk and eventually turned into a spun yarn. The cotton then goes through a drawing process, whereby the length per unit weight of the strands increases. Depending on the spinning system used to make yarn, the cotton must then undergo various other processes.

Spinning yarn

There are three spinning systems that create the yarn that is used in nonwoven; open end spinning, ring spinning and airjet spinning. Open-end spinning is popular because it is cheaper. The disadvantage is that fabric made from open-end yarn tends to be rougher than that made from other methods, has a rougher feel. Ring-spun products are softer and have a nicer hand. Sweatshirts made with air jet yarn are becoming increasingly popular because the air jet yarns are less hairy than their counterparts. This greatly reduces dust pilling. (Pilling is caused when cotton fibers come loose on a fabric and are hung on fibers that protrude from the surface of that fabric. If the loose fiber does not break down, it forms a pill.) However, air-jet yarn is only used in cotton / polyester blends.

Knit the yarn

Fleece knitting is performed on one four-track recording sewing machine. Fleece can be a construction with two or three ends. The difference between the two lies in the number of yarns knitted into the fabric. Sweating higher is usually three-quarter fleece, which means that the mill uses a surface yarn, a back yarn, and a twine that intertwine and take a nap. Three-end fleece is considered more stable and durable because it uses three yarns in the knitting process as opposed to two. Double-sided fleece does not use the twine when knitting and therefore does not have a smooth surface than the three-point. You end up with less thickness on a fleece product with two ends than a product with three ends.


After knitting, the greigeor unfinished fabric is rolled in large rolls. These rolls are combined for wet processing. Excess oil, waxes and dirt are usually extracted at this point, after which the substance is stabilized and prepared for bleaching (for white fleece) or paints. Typically, the body and rib are bleached and dyed together to ensure color compatibility. The substance content and color determine how long the substance stays in the paint barrels. At the end of the dyeing or bleaching process, the fabric is rinsed to remove excess dye and then passes through an extractor, which acts as an old-fashioned washing machine where water is pressed under a continuous rolling device. Fabric softeners can be added at this point.

The fabric is then turned inside out to prepare for napping. The snoozer is a large drum with rollers on the outside. The wire hairs on those rollers alternate between straight and curved hairs. Called straight wires travelers move the fabric around the drum. The curved bristles actually do the fleece by grasping and breaking the loops, creating the down at the bottom of the fabric.

After napping, the fabric is turned with the right side out calendared or compacted to reduce shrinkage. calendar call is a process of spreading the fabric to the desired width and pressing between metal rollers with steam present to stabilize the fabric,

During compaction, fabric is fed into a heated machine to push or push the loops in the fabric closer together. In short, the fabric enters the compaction chamber faster than comes out, so the fabric is compressed. An additional advantage of compacting is that it softens the material.

Once the fabric has reached this stage, it is ready to be cut and sewn into the custom embroidered sweatshirts, jogging pants, sweaters we wear every day. By knowing a little more about the production process behind the knitted fleece itself, you may have a little more understanding when shopping for the clothing that is made from it.

First of all, you MUST really do a meter sample for a garment if you want it to fit. Yarn dyes vary, so even if you use the same yarn, this time it can knit with a different stitch size.

Secondly, always be consistent in the size of your meter samples. I recommend 30 stitches x 30 rows, so select -30 + 30 when programming your Passap. You can do a larger sample and use it for a good cause, because you can't re-use the same yarn to knit in the garment, because the yarn goes up and looks different when you knit it a second time. The Passap creates a unique shrink in the yarn, so if you try to re-use the yarn with yarn that you have not knitted, it appears immediately and the finished stitch changes. You knit it, dye it, unravel it and knit it again so that the shrinkage is in the garment or knitted item.

If you are dealing with a very unstable fabric or yarn, you want to do a meter sample that is double the normal size, except for the 100 × 100 size.

What is unstable substance? Well, stockinette stitch and Passap birdseye fairisle are really stable (unless you work stockinette stitch on a very large stitch with weights to get very loose stitches). Passap Fisherman & # 39; s Rib is one of the most unstable.

The larger the piece of fabric, the more it usually grows due to the weight of the fabric, especially if it is a dress in my case. The length of the dress can cause the yarn to stretch by weight while being worn or hanging on a hanger. You can stretch the tendency of the yarn to stretch if you do a meter sample and send it through the same process as if you had to clean it after wearing it.

A longer length can change the meter. Some yarns can be (50 stitches can measure 8 inches, but 100 stitches can measure 20 inches). You will want to check what happens when you get into the real garments to make sure your meter stays accurate.

Some Passap fabrics with a double bed can grow in both dimensions. Just pay attention as you work with it and treat it after you remove it from the knitting machine.

The contrast yarn that you use to mark the beginning and end of your meter sample must be about the same size as the main yarn and have the same fiber content. If your main yarn is cotton, then if you use cotton for the contrast yarn, they will both shrink and the contrast yarn will not distort the shape of the main yarn piece.

Never attach ripples to your meter steel unless you have a significant number of rows between the two, as this will seriously distort the main dust meter.

Tip: if you have several stitches that you want to sample, make sure that you place at least 50 rows of scrap metal on either side of the next stitch that you want to try. This gives sufficient distance to prevent that one substance influences the other.

Many new yarn blends are available. some of them will knit on your Passap and others will not, so approach your yarn with curiosity and a sense of exploring and see what you can discover that could surprise and surprise you, bringing your knitwear to a whole new dimension and level.

If a yarn could go through the Passap eye, is it possible that we can knit with it on our beautiful Passap knitting machine if you know how to do it? And yes, you also have to do a sample for it.

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